Cooking Methods

Braising
Definition: A slow moist-heat cooking method using a small amount of liquid with a tight-fitting lid. Use for less tender cuts.

Appropriate cuts:
Steaks: Chuck Steak, chuck arm steak, blade steak (7-bone steak), round steak, eye of round steak, brisket and round tip steak
Roasts: Arm roast, blade roast, shoulder roast, rump roast, short ribs and back ribs

Step by Step:
1. In a large skillet or Dutch oven slowly brown the meat on all sides. Use a small amount of oil.
2. Pour off and discard drippings and season as desired.
3. Add a small amount of liquid (1/2 cup) such as wine or broth, juice or beer.
4. Cover the pan with a tight fitting lid to contain steam.
5. Simmer on the stovetop or in the oven (300F) until fork tender.

Beef for Braising
Beef Cut
Thickness/Weight
Total Cooking Time
Shoulder Roast 1 to 1 1/2 in. 1 3/4 to 2 1/4 hours
Bottom Round/Eye Round 1 to 1 1/2 in. 2 to 3 hours
Arm Roast (boneless) 2x2x4 in. 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 hours
Blade Roast 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 lbs. 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 hours
Chuck Roast (boneless) 3 1/2 to 5 lbs. 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 hours
Brisket, fresh 1 to 1 1/2 in. 2 to 3 hours
Round Steak 2x2x4 in. 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 hours
Short Ribs 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 lbs. 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 hours
Blade Steak (7-bone) 3 1/2 to 5 lbs. 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 hours
Short Ribs 3 1/2 to 5 lbs. 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 hours
Rump Roast 1 to 1 1/2 in. 2 to 3 hours
Back Ribs 2x2x4 in. 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 hours

TIPS:

  • Browning meat is optional, but it adds more flavor.
  • Braising is more often for large pieces of meat while stewing is used for smaller pieces of meat.
  • While simmering, check the pot to ensure that liquid has not completely evaporated. If so, add more liquid.
  • It is okay to use water, although liquid other than water will add more flavor to your broth.
  • Vegetables should be added during the last half of simmering. Root vegetables (potatoes & carrots) need more cooking time than vegetables such as zucchini, onion and celery.

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    Broiling
    Definition: A quick dry-heat cooking method done in the oven using the broiler setting. Use for more tender cuts. Less tender cuts can be used if marinated.

    Appropriate cuts: Ribeye steak, top loin steak, T-bone steak, top sirloin steak, tenderloin, top blade steak, kabobs and hamburger patties

    Appropriate cuts if marinated: Shoulder steak, flank steak and top round steak

    Step by Step:
    1. Set oven for broiling; preheat for 10 minutes. During broiling, the oven door for electric ranges should be left ajar; the oven door for gas ranges should remain closed. (However, consult your owner's manual for specific broiling guidelines.)
    2. Place beef (straight from refrigerator) on rack of broiler pan. Season beef, as desired. Position broiler pan so that surface of beef is within specified distance from the heat as indicated in chart.
    3. Broil according to chart, turning once. After cooking, season beef with salt, if desired.

    Steaks for Broiling
    Marinate and Broil: Marinate in tenderizing marinade 6 to 24 hours before broiling. Broil on rack of broiler pan so surface of beef is 3-4" from heat for 1" steaks; 2-3" from heat for " steaks, 1" top round and flank. Broil per chart for medium rare to medium, turning occasionally.
    Beef Cut
    Thickness/Weight
    Total Cooking Time
    Top Round 3/4 in. 12 to 13 minutes
      1 in. 17 to 18 minutes
      1 1/2 in. 27 to 29 minutes
    Chuck Shoulder 1/2 in. 3 to 4 minutes
      3/4 in. 10 to 13 minutes
    Flank 1 1/2 in. to 2 lbs 13 to 18 minutes
    Broil: Broil on rack of broiler pan so surface of beef is 3-4" from heat for 1" steaks, 2-3" from heat for " steaks and 1" tenderloin. Broil per chart for medium rare to medium, turning occasionally.
    Beef Cut
    Thickness
    Total Cooking Time
    Tenderloin 1 in. 13 to 16 minutes
    Ribeye, Boneless 3/4 in. 8 to 10 minutes
      1 in. 14 to 18 minutes
    Ribeye, Bone-In 3/4 in. 9 to 12 minutes
      1 in. 13 to 17 minutes
    T-Bone/Porterhouse 3/4 in. 10 to 13 minutes
      1 in. 15 to 20 minutes
    Top Loin (Strip) 3/4 in. 9 to 11 minutes
      1 in. 13 to 17 minutes
    Top Sirloin 3/4 in. 9 to 12 minutes
      1 in. 16 to 21 minutes
    Top Blade 1/2 in. 10 minutes
    Kabobs 1 to 1 1/2 in. cubes 9 to 12 minutes
    Ground Beef Patties 1/2x4 in. 10 minutes**
      3/4x4 in. 13 minutes**
    **Ground beef must be cooked to 160F internal temperature checked with a meat thermometer.

    TIPS:

  • When broiling you control the cooking not by adjusting the temperature but by adjusting the distance from the cooking source. You accomplish this by raising or lowering the cooking rack.
  • To make clean up easier, line the bottom of your broiler pan with foil.
  • Brush broiler rack with oil or spray with cooking spray to make clean up a breeze.
  • Use tongs instead of a fork for turning meat to prevent natural juices from escaping.

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    Grilling
    Definition: A quick dry-heat method over charcoal, wood or gas flames. Use for more tender cuts. Less tender cuts can be used if marinated.

    Appropriate cuts: Ribeye steak, top loin steak, T-bone steak, top sirloin steak, tenderloin, top blade steak, k-bobs and hamburger patties

    Appropriate cuts if marinated: Flank steak, shoulder steak, blade steak (7-bone steak), and skirt steak

    Step by Step:
    1. Preheat gas grill or prepare charcoal by allowing coals to burn down to medium heat (ash covered). It typically takes charcoals 30 minutes to reach medium heat.
    2. Season beef as desired. Place beef on cooking grate.
    3. Grill according to grilling timetable until desired doneness is reached turning meat only once.

    Grilling Timetable
    Marinate & Grill Steaks: Marinate in tenderizing marinade 6 to 24 hours before grilling. Grill, uncovered, over medium, ash-covered coals per chart for medium rare to medium, turning occasionally.
    Beef Cut
    Thickness/Weight
    Total Cooking Time
    Top Round 3/4 in. 8 to 9 minutes
      1 in. 16 to 18 minutes
      1 1/2 in. 25 to 28 minutes (covered)
    Chuck Shoulder 3/4 in. 14 to 17 minutes
      1 in. 16 to 20 minutes
    Chuck Blade 3/4 to 1 in. 15 to 18 minutes
    Flank 1 1/2 to 2 lbs. 17 to 21 minutes
    Skirt 1 to 1 1/2 lbs. 6 to 8 minutes
    Grilling Steaks: Grill, uncovered, over medium, ash-covered coals per chart for medium rare to medium, turning occasionally.
    Beef Cut
    Thickness
    Total Cooking Time
    Tenderloin 1 in. 13 to 15 minutes
    Ribeye, Boneless 3/4 in. 6 to 8 minutes
      1 in. 11 to 14 minutes
    Ribeye, Bone-In 3/4 in. 6 to 8 minutes
      1 in. 9 to 12 minutes
    T-Bone/Porterhouse 3/4 in. 10 to 12 minutes
      1 in. 14 to 16 minutes
    Top Loin (Strip) 3/4 in. 10 to 12 minutes
      1 in. 14 to 16 minutes
    Top Sirloin 3/4 in. 13 to 16 minutes
      1 in. 17 to 21 minutes
    Sirloin Kabobs 1 to 1 1/2 in. 8 to 11 minutes
      2 in. 34 to 40 minutes
    Top Blade 3/4 in. 8 minutes
    Ground Beef Patties 1/2 x 4 in. 10 to 12 minutes**
      3/4 x 4 in. 12 to 13 minutes
    **Ground beef must be cooked to 160F internal temperature checked with a meat thermometer.

    For more about grilling, see Building A Fire

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    Pan Broiling
    Definition: A quick dry-heat cooking method using a pan on a stove top. No oil is used and the pan is uncovered. Use for thinner cuts.

    Appropriate cuts: Most appropriate for thinner, more tender cuts of beef such as top blade steak, cubed steak, ground beef patties, ribeye steak, sirloin steaks, T-bone steaks, tenderloin and top loin.

    Appropriate cuts if marinated: Eye of round steak and top round steak

    Step by Step:
    1. Heat heavy non-stick skillet 5 minutes over medium to medium-high heat.
    2. Season beef as desired.
    3. Place beef in preheated skillet. Do not overcrowd.
    4. Do not add oil or water. Do not cover.
    5. Pan broil according to chart, turning once.

    Steaks for Pan Broiling
    Beef Cut
    Thickness
    Cooking Temp.
    Total Cooking Time
    Porterhouse/T-Bone 1/2 inch Med. High 5 minutes
      3/4 inch Medium 10 minutes
      1 inch Med./Med. Low 14 minutes
    Ribeye inch Med. High 5 minutes
      3/4 inch Medium 8 minutes
      1 inch Med./Med. Low 14 minutes
    Sirloin, boneless 3/4 inch Med./Med. Low 13 minutes
      1 inch Med./Med. Low 15 minutes
    Tenderloin 1/2 inch Med. High 3-4 minutes
      3/4 inch Medium 6 minutes
      1 inch Med./Med. Low 11 minutes
    Top Loin, boneless 1/2 inch Med. High 5 minutes
      3/4 inch Medium 8 minutes
      1 inch Med./Med. Low 11 minutes
    Chuck Top Blade 3/4 to 1 inch Medium 9 minutes
    Eye Round 1/2 inch Med. High 4 minutes
      1 inch Medium 10 mintues
    Top Round 1/2 inch Medium 8 to 10 minutes
    Ground Beef Patties 1/2 inch Med./Med. Low 7 to 8 minutes **
      3/4 inch Med./Med. Low 9 to 10 mintues **
      1 inch Med./Med. Low 11 to 12 minutes **
    **Ground beef must be cooked to 160F internal temperature checked with a meat thermometer.

    TIPS:

  • Optimum thickness for pan broiling is inch thick. Results will be less than desirable if used with cuts more than inch thick.
  • For best results in browning, pat steaks dry with paper towels before seasoning.
  • Be sure meat is cut to a uniform thickness to ensure even cooking.
  • Use a heavy pan that conducts heat well. A thin poorly conducting pan can have hot spots and burn foods.
  • It is important that your skillet be preheated before adding the meat. Meat will not stick to a properly heated skillet.
  • The browned bits left in your skillet after pan broiling are full of flavor. Make use of them by making a simple yet delicious sauce. Deglaze the pan by adding cup red wine to the still hot pan. Scrape the bits off the bottom of the skillet and add cup beef broth. Stir in cup blackberry or apricot preserves. Serve over warm steaks.

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    Pan Frying
    Definition: A quick dry-heat cooking method using a pan with a small amount of oil. No lid is used. Use for thinner cuts. Also called sauteing.

    Appropriate cuts: Most appropriate for thin, tender cuts such as cube steak, sirloin steak, ribeye steak, top blade steak, round tip steak, top loin steak, tenderloin and eye of round.

    Step by Step:
    1. Heat small amount of oil in skillet on stovetop over medium to medium-high heat until hot.
    2. Season, dredge in flour, or bread beef as desired.
    3. Place beef in pre-heated skillet. Do not overcrowd.
    4. Do not add water or other liquid. Do not cover.
    5. Pan fry to desired doneness, turning once.

    Steaks for Pan Frying
    Beef Cut
    Thickness
    Total Cooking Time
    Eye Round 1/2 in. 2 to 4 minutes
    Chuck Top Blade 1/2 in. 3 to 4 minutes
    Round Tip 1/4 in. 1 to 2 minutes
    Cubed 1/2 in. 5 to 7 minutes

    TIPS:

  • The thinner the meat - the higher the heat.
  • When breading steaks, breading will stick better if beef is refrigerated after breading for at least 10 minutes before pan frying.
  • Be sure meat is cut to a uniform thickness to ensure even cooking.
  • Never add liquid ingredients to hot oil. This will cause popping.
  • Do not add too many pieces to the pan at one time. This causes the oil temperature to drop which can result in the grease being absorbed into the food.
  • Use a heavy pan that conducts heat well. A thin, poorly conducting pan can have hot spots and burn foods.
  • Do not overcrowd. Overcrowding causes the food to steam instead of fry and it won't be brown and crispy.

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    Roasting (Dry Roasting)
    Definition: A dry-heat cooking method used for cooking bigger cuts of beef. No liquid is added or cover used. Use for more tender cuts.

    Appropriate cuts: Just because a cut of meat has "roast" in the name does not necessarily mean that roasting is an appropriate cooking method. More tender cuts are best used for this cooking method such as rib roast, ribeye roast, tenderloin, tri-tip roast, sirloin roast and rump roast.
    For less tender cuts such as chuck roast, chuck-eye roast, eye of round roast, top round roast, or pot roast refer to BRAISING.

    Step by Step:
    1. Season beef with herbs and spices or a rub.
    2. Place roast, fat side up, on a rack in a shallow roasting pan.
    3. Insert a meat thermometer into thickest part of roast, in center, not touching bone or fat.
    4. Do not add water, do not cover.
    5. Roast meat to 5 to 10 degrees below desired doneness. Temperature will continue to rise to desired doneness.
    6. Let roast stand 15 to 20 minutes before slicing or serving. It will be easier to carve and the juices will set up.

    Beef Roast Doneness
    Roast to desired doneness by removing roast from oven when an oven dial or instant-read meat thermometer inserted in the center of the thickest part of roast reads 5 to 10 below final doneness temperature.
    Degree of Doneness
    Remove roast from oven when meat temperature reaches:
    Final roast temperature after 10 to 15 min. standing time:
    Med-Rare 135 F 145 F
    Medium 150 F 160 F
    Well Done 160 F 170 F


    Beef Roasting Time Table
    Beef Cut
    Weight
    Oven Temp.
    Approx. Cooking Time
    Standing Rib Roast 4 to 6 lbs. 325 F 26 to 30 minutes/lb.
      6 to 8 lbs. 325 F 23 to 25 minutes/lb.
      8 to 10 lbs. 325 F 19 to 21 mintues/lb.
    Ribeye Roast, boneless 3 to 4 lbs. 350 F 23 to 30 minutes/lb.
      4 to 6 lbs. 350 F 18 to 20 minutes/lb.
      8 to 10 lbs. 350 F 13 to 15 minutes/lb.
    Round Tip Roast 2 1/2 to 4 lbs. 325 F 30 to 35 minutes/lb.
      4 to 6 lbs. 325 F 25 to 30 minutes/lb.
      8 to 10 lbs. 325 F 18 to 22 minutes/lb.
    Tenderloin Roast 2 to 3 lbs. 425 F 35 to 40 minutes total time
      4 to 6 lbs. 425 F 45 to 60 minutes total time
    Top Loin 4 to 6 lbs. 325 F 17 to 21 minutes/lb.
    Strip Loin Roast 6 to 8 lbs. 325 F 14 to 17 mintues/lb.
    Top Sirloin Roast 2 to 4 lbs. 350 F 16 to 20 minutes/lb.
    Top Round Roast 2 1/2 to 4 lbs. 325 F 25 to 30 minutes/lb.
      4 to 6 lbs. 325 F 20 to 25 minutes/lb.
      6 to 10 lbs. 325 F 17 to 19 minutes/lb.
    Tri-Tip Roast 1 1/2 to 2 lbs. 425 F 30 to 40 minutes total time
    Eye Round Roast 2 to 3 lbs. 325 F 1 1/2 to 1 3/4 hrs. total time

    TIPS:

  • Be sure to check your roast with a meat thermometer.
  • If your roasting pan is too deep, your roast may not brown properly.
  • Attempting to carve your roast without allowing it to rest will cause significant loss of juices.
  • A pan gravy can be made with the drippings after removing your roast from the pan

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    Stewing
    Definition: A slow moist-heat cooking method using a pot with a tight-fitting lid. The beef should be completely covered in liquid. Use for less tender cuts.

    Appropriate cuts: While technically any cut of beef can be stewed, this method is most appropriate for cooking tougher cuts such as cuts from the chuck or round.

    Step by Step:
    1. Slowly brown the cubed meat in a small amount of oil stirring to brown all sides. This step can be omitted but you will find that it imparts a great deal of flavor to your dish.
    2. Pour off drippings and season as desired.
    3. Add water or broth to cover.
    4. Cover with a tight fitting lid.
    5. Simmer on a low heat on the stovetop until meat is fork tender. (Simmer is to cook at a temperature just below a boil. Bubbles form around the edges of the pan and rise slowly to the surface.)

    Beef for Stewing
    Beef Cut
    Thickness/Weight
    Total Cooking Time
    Beef for Stew 1 to 1 1/2 in. 1 3/4 to 2 1/4 hours
    Shank Cross Cuts 1 to 1 1/2 in. 2 to 3 hours
    Short Ribs 2x2x4 in. 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 hours
    Corned Beef Brisket 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 lbs. 2 1/2 to 3 1/2 hours
      3 1/2 to 5 lbs. 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 hours

    TIPS:

  • If your stew reaches a full boil it will cause your meat to become tough instead of tenderizing it. Be sure you keep the stew to a simmer.
  • Vegetables should be added during the last half of cooking time.
  • To thicken your stew, use a mixture of flour or cornstarch and water or other liquid. The liquid should be cool and the mixture should be mixed well to dissolve any lumps. If using cornstarch, mixture should be 1 part cornstarch to 2 parts liquid. If using flour, the mixture should be 1 part flour to 4 parts liquid. This mixture is called a slurry. Slowly add the slurry to the simmering stew while stirring continuously. A cornstarch slurry will thicken almost instantly while a flour slurry will take a few minutes of simmering to thicken. Start with a few tablespoons of the slurry and proceed with a little bit more at a time until the desired thickness is achieved.

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    Stir Frying
    Definition: A quick dry-heat cooking method using a lightly oiled pan. Use high heat while continuously tossing ingredients. Any cut can be used as long as it is cut into thin uniform strips.

    Appropriate cuts: Shoulder steak, sirloin steak, round tip steak, top round steak, flank steak and top blade steak

    Step by Step:
    1. Partially freeze beef (10 minutes in the freezer) for easy slicing.
    2. Slice meat into thin uniform strips (1/8 inch or thinner).
    3. Marinate or season meat as desired.
    4. Heat small amount of oil in wok or heavy non-stick skillet over medium or medium-high heat until hot.
    5. Stir-fry meat in batches to prevent over crowding. Stir continuously in a scooping/tossing motion until outside surface of beef is no longer pink.

    TIPS:

  • Be sure pan and oil are very hot before adding beef.
  • Cook beef and vegetables separately, then combine, and heat through.
  • The cooking liquid may be thickened using corn starch and water if desired.
  • Use two large spoons or spatulas to make tossing easier.
  • Cut all ingredients to uniform size so pieces will cook evenly.

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